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Yanwang Xiang in Kizil Murals and the "Ten chant law"
Zhang Qiao
The Kizil Cave Murals contain painted images of geese in Caves 60 and 171, and a central statue of Buddha painted with hand, foot, and finger unadorned was originally located in Caves 171, 40, and 178. Acording to the Dazhidulun "this record is known as Yanwang Xiang (geese, open hands, etc.).” Yanwang Xiang are extremely rare in the Chinese Buddhist mural tradition. The distinctive paintings at Kucha are full of this motif.. From the analysis of the literature we can see that the Kucha law school was a center for the dissemination of Buddhism. The "ten chant law" and "four law" were major themes in the literary sources from Yanwang. The "Ten chant law" was translated from the Sanskrit into Jin; Kumarajiva and his teacher made this important contribution. This paper attempts to use the Yanwang Xiang and "ten chant law" as a clue to investigate the effect of Kizil Buddhist civilization on Chinese southern culture.